物流英语Text3&4.ppt

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General cargo ships are vessels designed to carry non-bulk cargoes (break-bulk cargoes). The traditional ships were less than 10 000 dwt, because of extremely slow loading and off-loading. More recently these vessels have been replaced by container ships because they can be loaded more efficiently. RORO vessels are designed to allow cars, trucks and trains to be loaded directly on board. Originally appearing as ferries, these vessels are used on deep-sea trades and are much larger than the typical ferry. The largest are the car carriers that transport vehicles from assembly plants to the main markets. Charter services (also known as Tramp) In this form of service, a maritime company rents a ship for a specific purpose, commonly between specific ports of origin and destination. Charter service is notably used in the case of bulk cargo. Liner services Liner offer shipping space, as common carriers, on ships playing along fixed routes on regular schedule, principally engaged in carrying general cargo in relatively small shipments and limited volumes. 载货量 It is relatively slow compared with other transport modes. Delays are encountered in ports where loading and unloading takes place. However, technical improvements tend to blur the distinction between bulk and break-bulk cargo, as both can be unitized on pallets and containers. 1. It often requires the use of specialized ships such as oil tankers as well as specialized transshipment and storage facilities. 这常常需要使用到专用船,比如油船或其他专用转运设备和存储设施。 2. Before containerization, economies of scale were difficult to achieve with break-bulk cargo as the loading and unloading process was very labor and time consuming. 在运输集装箱化之前,件杂货运输难以实现规模效应,因为装、卸过程要耗费大量的人力和时间。 3. The largest tankers, the Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCC) are up to 500000 deadweight tons (dwt), with the more typical size being between 250 000 and 350 000 dwt 最大的一种油轮——特大型油轮,最高能达到500 000载重吨,一般在3 000 000到350 000载重吨之间。 4.Liner offer shipping space, as c

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