糠醛(C5H4O2)生产工艺研究.doc

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摘 要 糠醛是一种重要的化工原料,可作为石油精炼过程中溶剂,用来生产呋喃及呋喃及呋喃衍生物、合成药物和其他化学品,广泛应用于化工、医药和食品工业。 糠醛的生产方法有两种:生物质水解和催化裂解。相比水解而言,催化裂解具有反应时间短、出醛率高等优点,受到糠醛工业界的关注。 依据秸秆催化裂解制备糠醛技术,本设计提出了年产1万吨糠醛的生产工艺。生产过程包括流化床燃烧、筛板式反应器裂解、喷雾冷凝、糠醛蒸馏精制等工序,涉及物料衡算、热量衡算,如流化床、热解筛板反应器、精馏塔等主要设备的计算与选型,对工艺过程的控制、环境保护和经济评价提出了相应的要求。 关键词:秸秆;催化热解;糠醛制备;工艺设计;平衡计算 Abstract Furfural is an important chemical widely used in chemical engineering, pharmaceutical medical, and food industry, such as acting as an extraction solvent in the process of petroleum refining, and as an intermediate chemical for furan and its derivatives production, drug synthesis, and other chemicals and materials preparation. There are two main methods to produce furfural: one is hydrolysis of straws, and the other is catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. Compared to the hydrolysis method, catalysis pyrolysis process has an obvious advantage of short reaction time, high yield of furfural, and attracted more and more attention in furfural industry. Based on the process of catalysis pyrolysis, a design about an annual output of 10,000 tons furfural production is put forward. The process is composed of fluidization combustion, sieve-shelf pyrolysis, spraying condensing, and furfural refining. The balance calculation of this design included material balance, heat balance, as well as the calculation and selection of some key equipment such as fluidization bed, pyrolysis reactor of sieve-shelf, heater, and distillation tower. The evaluation of process control, environment protection and economics of this design has been discussed. Keywords: Straw; Catalytic pyrolysis; Furfural production; Process design; Balance calculation 目 录 摘 要 I Abstract II 第一章 概述 1 1.1 糠醛的应用和市场前景 1 1.1.1 糠醛的应用 1 1.1.2 糠醛的市场 1 1.2 糠醛及其副产物的结构和性质 5 1.2.1 糠醛 5 1.2.2 副产物 5 1.3糠醛的生产工艺 7 1.3.1 一步法 7 1.3.2 二步法 8 1.3.3 催化热解 8 1.4 水解和热解工艺比较 10 1.5 催化热解生产糠醛工艺原理及流程 11 1.5.1反应机理 11 1.5.2 生产工艺流程图 12 1.5.3 生产工艺流程简述 12 1.5.4 产品指标及执行的标准 13 1.6 本设计的提出及意义 14 1.6.1 设计的提出 14 1.6.2 设计的内容 14 1.6.3 设计的意义 14 第二章

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