英语修辞讲解汇总.ppt 151页

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    Figures of Speech 1. Simile (1-2) “明喻”又称直喻,是不同类别对象之间的相似点之间的比喻。如: 1) New China is like a red sun rising in the east. (本体)(喻词)(喻体) 本体(subject or tenor)指被比喻的对象,喻体(reference or vehicle)指用作比喻的对象,喻词(indicator of resemblance or simile marker)用在本体和语体之间起连接介绍作用。 Simile源于拉丁语similis,意义相当于英语介词like (像),因此明喻中多用like作比喻词,此外还包括as, as…if, as though, as…as, (just)as…so, similar to, to bear the resemblance to, etc. 如: 2) The gossip is like a net that strangled her. (她被像网一样的流言蜚语缠绕着,近乎窒息。) 3) The news is like a dagger to his heart. (这消息就像一把利刃刺向他的心脏。) 1. Simile (2-2) 4) He has no more idea of money than a cow. (就看待金钱而言,他和一头牛差不多。) “明喻”用于描述时,能生动形象勾画出被比喻对象的特征。使人对熟悉的印象产生新鲜感,如: 5) His voice sounded like a thunder in the hall. 或对生疏的对象产生熟悉感,如: 6) The machine-gun was shooting down the enemy like a mower cutting down grass. 用于说明时,可以使枯燥深奥的哲理变得浅显易懂。如: 7) Habit is likened to a cable; Every day we weave a thread, and soon we cannot break it. 2. Metaphor (1-3) “隐喻”又称暗喻,是用于两个不同类别对象之间的比喻。隐喻与明喻的区别在于,明喻将本体和喻体说成是相似的,而隐喻则将两者说成是一致的。明喻中必须有比喻词,而隐喻中则不需要,因此隐喻被称为“压缩了的明喻”(condensed simile)。 比较:Joe fought like a lion. (Simile) Joe was a lion in the battle. (Metaphor) 隐喻具有明喻的修辞特点,而且更加简练有力、生动贴切,深刻含蓄。如: 1) The night was pitch-black. (夜漆黑。) pitch-black 作为隐喻,表示(night) is as dark as pitch. 2. Metaphor (2-3) 2) At last he felt a ray of hope. (最终他感觉到了一丝希望。) Ray 表示“很少的一点”,来自“a ray of sunlight,” “希望”在这里被喻为阳光。 3) The hallway was zebra-striped with darkness and moonlight. (黑暗与月光交错投在走廊上像一条条斑马纹。) 4) All the world’s a stage, And all men and women merely players. They have their exist and their entrance, And one man in his time plays many parts. — Shakespeare 2. Metaphor (3-3) 莎翁将世间比作舞台,男男女女都是演员,“你演罢我登场,一生的角色各种各样 …”。 隐喻随处可见。有些词也包含隐喻成分:如,table-leg(桌腿), bottleneck(瓶颈), running brook(流溪), fin(尾翼)wing(机翼)

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