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AP Chemistry Chapter 8 - 9AP化学章8 - 9.DOC 35页

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AP Chemistry: Chapter 8 Student Notes—Bonding Objectives 8.1: Types of Chemical Bonds 8.2: Electronegativity 8.3: Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 8.4: Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 8.5: Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds 8.8: Covalent Bond Energies 8.10: Lewis Structures 8.11: Exceptions to the Octet Rule 8.12: Resonance 8.13: VSEPR Model and Shapes 9.1: Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model 8.1: Types of Chemical Bonds Introduction to Bonding Type The Key: Coulomb’s Law What holds thing together is _______________ attraction Ionic Bond Diagram ____________ of valence electrons Covalent Bond Diagram ____________ of valence electrons Metallic Bond Diagram ____________ of valence electrons Bond Energy and Bond Distance of a Covalent Bond 8.2: Electronegativity Definition Trend 8.3: Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments Dipole = Dipole Moment = Polar bond = Polar Molecule Bond must be _________________ Shape must not ________________ Examples of Polar molecules H2O is polar NH3 is polar CO2 is not polar 8.4: Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes Ions have __________________ sizes than ____________________ Cations of the same element are ___________________. Anions of the same element are ____________________. Why? Draw pictures here and discuss electrons and electron clouds. Example 1: Rank the following in order from smallest to largest: Na+, Mg2+, Al3+O2-, F-, Ne 8.5: Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds This section looks that the energies involved in the formation of ionic bonds Lattice Energy: ____________________________________ For the Reaction: M+ (g) + X-(g) ( MX(s) Steps to make this happen: Start with the metal in it’s standard state and the anion in its standard state: Each step requires energy (or releases in some cases) Example: The formation of lithium fluoride 8.8

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