二语习得复习资料.doc 15页

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    Chapter 4 Language and the brain Broca抯 area, which is usually associated with the production of language, or language outputs . Wernicke's area, which is associated with the processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs Lateralization: language activity is not localized, but core linguistic processes are typically housed in the left hemisphere and is present to some extent even in infancy Critical Period Hypothesis: children had only a limited number of years during which they could acquire their L1 flawlessly; brain plasticity in childhood would allow other areas of the brain to take over the language functions of the damaged areas, but beyond a certain age, normal language would not be possible. ① How independent are the languages of multilingual speakers? there are three possibility for how language relate in an individual’s mind Coordinate bilingualism: refers to parallel linguistic systems, independent of one another Compound bilingualism : refers to a fused and unified system Subordinate bilingualism: refers to one linguistic system accessed through another ② How are multiple language structures organized in relation to one another in the brain? Are both languages stored in the same areas? there is considerable variation among speakers. For at least some multilinguals, it appears that L1 and L2 are stored in somewhat different areas of the brain, but both are predominantly in (probably overlapping) areas of the left hemisphere. However, the right hemisphere might be more involved in L2 than in L1. ③ Does the organization of the brain for L2 in relation to L1 differ with age of acquisition, how it is learned, or level of proficiency? The answer is probably “yes” to all three, with the strongest body of evidence showing that age of acquisition influences brain organization for many second language learners ④ Do two or more languages show the same sort of loss or disruption after brain damage? When there is differential impairment or reco

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