建筑工程英语1.ppt 23页

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    建筑工程英语1

    Lesson 1 Building Engineering * Types of Buildings A building is closely bound up with people, for it provides people with the necessary, space to work and live in. As classified by their use,buildings are mainly of two types: industrial buildings and civil buildings (Fig 1.1). Industrial buildings are used by various factories or industrial production while civil buildings are those that are used by people for dwelling,employment,education and other social activities[1]. classify 分类 dwell 居住 1-column, 2-foundation, 3-roof truss, 4-roof slab, 5-corner column, 6-wind resistance column, 7-gable wall, 8-windows, 9-plinth, 10-apron, (a) Fabricated Single-storey Industrial Factory 11-foundation beam, 12-external longitudinal wall, 13-crane beam, 14-ground, 15-column bracing, 16-Connecting beam, 17-ring beam 1-foundation, 2-step, 3- canopy, 4- apron, 5-plinth, 6-window, 7-basement, 8-floor, 9-stairs, 10- internal longitudinal wall, 11- internal transverse wall, 12-partition, 13- external wall, 14-drainpipe, 15- water outlet, 16- overhang eaves, 17-roof, 18- parapet, 19-door (b)a civil building Fig1.1 Industrial buildings and civil buildings As classified by their structural types, buildings are mainly of four types: frame structures(Fig1.2a) where a frame, or skeleton, holds up the weight and other materials are used to close the building up; mass wall types(Fig1.2b), where solid materials such as brick , concrete and other types of masonry are used to build heavy walls that hold up the building; mixed bearing structure is composed of frame structure and bearing wall supporting all the weight together; space structure formed by reinforced concrete and steel support the loads, for example, truss structure, cable structure, shell structure etc. frame 框架 masonry 砌体 truss 桁架 shell 壳体 cable 悬索 (a) Frame structure 1-slab, 2-main beam, 3-filler wall (b) Mass wall structure 1-prefabricated slab, 2-bearing wall, 3-self

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