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无法表示为初等函数的不定积分及其证明.pdf 25页

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Liouville’s Theorem on Integration in Terms of Elementary Functions R.C. Churchill Prepared for the Kolchin Seminar on Differential Algebra (KSDA) Department of Mathematics, Hunter College, CUNY October, 2002 Revised, 28 February 2003 The notes should be regarded as an elementary introduction to differential algebra. Contents 1. Preliminaries on Meromorphic Functions 2. Basic (Ordinary) Differential Algebra 3. Differential Ring Extensions with No New Constants 4. Extending Derivations 5. Integration in Finite Terms References 1 In these notes we present a purely algebraic proof, due to M Rosen- licht, of an 1835 theorem of Liouville on the existence of “elementary” integrals of “elementary” functions (the precise meaning of elementary will be specified). As an application we prove that the indefinite integral 2 cannot be expressed in terms of elementary functions. Unless specifically stated to the contrary “ring” always means “com- mutative ring with (a multiplicative) identity”. That identity is denoted by 1 when the ring should be clear from context; by 1 when this may not be the case and the ring is denoted . 2 1. Preliminaries on Meromorphic Functions In this section denotes the real field or the complex field . When is a single indeterminate over one can regard a polynomial () with coefficients in algebraically, i.e., as an entity within the integral domain [], or analytically, i.e., as a function : . We adopt both views. Analogous interpretatio

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