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Art of Problem Solving Volume 1(第一卷解决问题的艺术).pdf 4页

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Excerpt from "Art of Problem Solving Volume 1: the Basics" ©2014 AoPS Inc. Chapter 15 Area In earlier chapters we discussed how to find the areas of simple figures like circles and triangles. In this chapter, we learn how to find the area of more complex figures and of simple figures in complex problems. 15.1 Similar Figures On page 109, we showed that if two triangles are similar and their sides have common ratio k, the ratio of their areas is k2 . This is true of any two similar figures. For example, since all circles are similar, if one has a radius which is twice as large as another, its area is 4 times as large as the second. Thus, when working on a problem in which you are able to prove that two figures are similar, you can easily relate the areas of the figures. EXAMPLE 15-1 The area of a triangle is 36. Find the area of the triangle formed by connecting the midpoints of its sides. Solution: We first prove that any triangle is similar to the triangle formed A by connecting the midpoints of its sides. In the figure, since E and F are F E midpoints, we have AE/AC = AF/AB = 1/2. Since \EAF = \CAB, we have 4CAB ⇠ 4EAF from SAS Similarity. Hence EF/CB = 1/2. Similarly, we can show FD/AC = 1/2 and ED/AB = 1/2. Thus, by SSS Similarity, we have B D C 4ABC ⇠ 4DEF. Thus, [DEF] 1 2 1 = = . [ABC] 2 4 Hence [DEF] = [ABC]/4 = 9. EXAMPLE 15-2 The ratio of the areas of two squares is 6. Find the ratio of the lengths of the diagonals of the two squares. Solution: Like circles, all squares are similar. Thus, the ratio of the are

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