1-1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS
1-1C Classical thermodynamics is based on experimental observations whereas statistical thermodynamics
is based on the average behavior of large groups of particles.
1-2C On a downhill road the potential energy of the bicyclist is being converted to kinetic energy, and
thus the bicyclist picks up speed. There is no creation of energy, and thus no violation of the conservation
of energy principle.
1-3C There is no truth to his claim. It violates the second law of thermodynamics.
Mass, Force, and Units
1-4C Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the force unit. One
pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of 32.174 lbm by 1 ft/s2 . In other words, the weight
of a 1-lbm mass at sea level is 1 lbf.
1-5C Kg-mass is the mass unit in the SI system whereas kg-force is a force unit. 1-kg-force is the force
required to accelerate a 1-kg mass by 9.807 m/s2 . In other words, the weight of 1-kg mass at sea level is 1
1-6C There is no acceleration, thus the net force is zero in both cases.
1-7 A plastic tank is filled with water. The weight of the combined system is to be determined.
Assumptions The density of water is constant throughout. 3
Properties The density of water is given to be ρ = 1000 kg/m .
Analysis The mass of the water in the tank and the total mass are mtank = 3 kg 3 V =0.2 m 3 3 mw =ρV =(1000 kg/m )(0.2 m ) = 200 kg H2O m = m + m = 200 + 3 = 203 kg total w tank
Thus, 2 1 N (203 kg)(9.81 m/s ) 1991 N W mg 2 1 kg m/s ⋅
1-2 1-8 The interior dimensions of a room are given. The mass and weight of the air in the room are to be determined. Assumptions The density of air is constant throughout the room. 3 Properties The density of air is given to be ρ = 1.16 kg/m . Analysis The mass of the air in the room is ROOM 3 3 AIR (1.16 kg/m )(6m= 6 ρ 8Vm ) × =× 334.1 kg 3 Thus, 6X6X8 m 2 1 N (334.1W kg)(9.81mg m/s ) 3277 N 2 1 kg m/