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TEM3 Amplitude Contrast CHAPTER PREVIEW:(特3振幅对比度章节预览).pdf 203页

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Part 3 Imaging 22 Amplitude Contrast CHAPTER PREVIEW We’ve already mentioned in Chapters 2–4 that TEM image contrast arises because of the scattering of the incident beam by the specimen. The electron wave can change both its amplitude and its phase as it traverses the specimen and both types of change can give rise to image contrast. Thus a fundamental distinction we make in the TEM is between amplitude contrast and phase contrast . In most situations, both types of contrast actually contribute to an image, although we usually select conditions so that one will tend to dominate. In this chapter, we’ll discuss only amplitude contrast and we’ll see that there are two principal types, namely, mass-thickness contrast and diffraction contrast. This kind of contrast is observed in both TEM and STEM and in both BF and DF images. We’ll discuss the important differences between the images formed in each of these two modes of operation. Then we’ll go on to discuss the principles of diffraction contrast, which are sufficiently complex that it takes Chapters 24–27 to show you how this form of contrast is used to identify and distinguish different crystal defects. Diffraction-contrast imaging came into prominence in about 1956 when it was realized that the intensity in a diffracted beam depends strongly on the deviation parameter, s, and that crystal defects rotate the diffract- ing planes near the defect. Therefore, the diffraction contrast from regions close to the defect will depend on the properties (in pa

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