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Working Paper THREE DIMENSIONAL CHESS IN THE JERUSALEM OF KURDISTAN US Army Governance Operations in Kirkuk 2003-2009 Peter W. Connors, PhD 8165906821 Contents (To be completed after insertion of maps and photographs) Forward …… Maps …… Chapter 1. Introduction ……………… Chapter 2. Ancient City in an Ancient Land………………………. Chapter 3. Quelling Chaos……………………………….. Chapter 4. Finger on the Pulse………… Chapter 5. Conclusion…………. Appendix A. American Units in Kirkuk………………. Bibliography …… THREE DIMENSIONAL CHESS IN THE JERUSALEM OF KURDISTAN US Army Governance Operations in Kirkuk 2003-2009 Chapter 1: Introduction Situated in northeast Iraq approximately150 miles from Baghdad along the Khasa River, the city of Kirkuk is estimated by archeologists to be more than 5,000 years old. Kirkuk’s citadel, much of which is still in existence, dates back to 3,000 BC. Known originally as the ancient city of Arrapha, Kirkuk rose to distinction while under Assyrian governance during the 10th and 11th centuries. Ruled subsequently by a succession of empires, including the Babylonian, Median, and Ottoman, Kirkuk slowly evolved into an ethnically mixed city inhabited by Kurds, Arabs, Turkomans, and Assyrians. The discovery of oil after World War I in the nearby Baba Gurgur region, heightened ethnic tensions in Kirkuk. After assuming political power in Iraq in 1968, the Ba’ath Party initiated deliberate “Arabization” procedures to ensure Arab control of the lucrative oil fields. Hundreds of thousands of Kurds and Turkomans were forced from Kirkuk and replaced by Arab settlers from southern Iraq, thereby significantly altering the city’s ethnic balance. After Coalition forces liberated Iraq and forced Saddam Hussein and the Ba’ath Party from power in 2003, displaced Kurds and Turkomans began returning to Kirkuk to reclaim their land as Arabs fled the city. With proven reserves of ten billion barrels of oil, production levels of one million barrels of oil a d

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