Text Book of Dermatology
Department of Dermatology
Chapter1 Structure and function of human skin
Chapter 2 Diagnosis of Skin Disease
Chapter 3 Therapy in Dermatology and Venereology
Chapter 4 Fungal Diseases
Chapter 5 Common viral diseases of skin
Chapter 6 Scabies
Chapter 7 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Chapter 8 Contact Dermatitis
Chapter 9 Neurodermatitis
Chapter 10 Eczema
Chapter 11 Urticaria
Chapter 12 Drug Eruption
Chapter 13 Papulosquamous dermatoses
Chapter 14 Lupus Erythematosus
Chapter 15 Bullous Dermatoses
Chapter 16 Vitiligo
Chapter 17 Acne
Chapter 1 Structure and function of human skin
Introduction of skin structure
Human skin is a uniquely engineered organ covering the body. Being the largest organ, the skin provides around 16% of the body mass of an average person, and it covers an average area of 1.5 m2. The average thickness is 0.5-4 mm (not including subcutaneous fat tissue). The skin is thickest on the palms and soles. It is very thin on the eyelid. It performs many vital roles as both a barrier and a regulating influence between the outside world and the controlled environment within our bodies.
Skin color differs by race, age, gender and location. It is darker around external genitalia, anus, and areola.
The skin is composed of epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous tissue and skin appendages including hair follicles, sebaceous glands, ecrrine glands and apocrine glands, nails. There is no hair on the palms and soles, so called glabrous skin. Glabrous skin is grooved on its surface by continuously alternating ridges and sulci, in individually unique configurations known as dermatoglyphics. It is characterized by the presence of encapsulated sense organs within the dermis, and by a lack of hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair-bearing skin, on the other hand, has both hair follicles and sebaceous glands but lacks encapsulated sense organs.