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Distributions to ShareholdersDividends and Repurchases必看课件资料.ppt 29页

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CHAPTER 14 Distributions to Shareholders: Dividends and Repurchases Theories of investor preferences Signaling effects Residual model Dividend reinvestment plans Stock dividends and stock splits Stock repurchases What is “dividend policy”? It’s the decision to pay out earnings versus retaining and reinvesting them. Includes these elements: 1. High or low payout? 2. Stable or irregular dividends? 3. How frequent? 4. Do we announce the policy? Do investors prefer high or low payouts? There are three theories: Dividends are irrelevant: Investors don’t care about payout. Bird-in-the-hand: Investors prefer a high payout. Tax preference: Investors prefer a low payout, hence growth. Dividend Irrelevance Theory Investors are indifferent between dividends and retention-generated capital gains. If they want cash, they can sell stock. If they don’t want cash, they can use dividends to buy stock. Modigliani-Miller support irrelevance. Theory is based on unrealistic assumptions (no taxes or brokerage costs), hence may not be true. Need empirical test. Bird-in-the-Hand Theory Investors think dividends are less risky than potential future capital gains, hence they like dividends. If so, investors would value high payout firms more highly, i.e., a high payout would result in a high P0. Tax Preference Theory Retained earnings lead to capital gains, which are taxed at lower rates than dividends: 28% maximum vs. up to 39.6%. Capital gains taxes are also deferred. This could cause investors to prefer firms with low payouts, i.e., a high payout results in a low P0. Implications of 3 Theories for Managers Which theory is most correct? Empirical testing has not been able to determine which theory, if any, is correct. Thus, managers use judgment when setting policy. Analysis is used, but it must be applied with judgment. What’s the “information content,” or “signaling,” hypothesis? Managers hate to cut dividends, so won’t raise dividends unless they think raise is sustainabl

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