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Economics of Pollution ControlAn Overview必看课件资料.ppt 28页

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Chapter 14 Economics of Pollution Control: An Overview 14.1 Introduction Main contents: Lay the foundation for understanding the policy approach to controlling the flow of waste products by developing a general framework for analyzing pollution control. Define efficient and cost-effective allocations for a variety of pollutant types. Compare the efficient and cost-effective allocations to market allocations. Demonstrate how efficiency and cost-effectiveness can be used to formulate desirable policy responses. 14.2 A Pollutant Taxonomy According to the absorptive capacity of the environment, the pollutants can be classified as follows: Stock pollutants, which the environment has little or no absorptive capacity. Found pollutants, which the environment has some absorptive capacity. 14.2 A Pollutant Taxonomy Pollutants can also be classified by their zone of influence, defined both horizontally and vertically. The horizontal dimension deals with the domain over which damage from an emitted pollutant is experienced. Local pollutants Regional pollutants The vertical zone of influence describes whether the damage is caused mainly by ground-level concentrations of an air pollutant or by concentrations in the upper atmosphere. surface pollutant Global pollutant 14.3 Defining Efficient Allocation of Pollution 14.3.1 Stock Pollutants 14.3.2 Fund Pollutants 14.3.1 Stock Pollutants The efficient allocation of a stock pollutant must take into account the fact that the pollutant accumulates in the environment over time and that the damage caused by its presence increases and persists as the pollutant accumulates. 14.3.1 Stock Pollutants Suppose: consider the allocation of a commodity which we refers to as X. The production of X involves the generation of a proportional amount of a stock pollutant. The damage caused by the presence of this pollutant in the environment is further assumed to be proportional to the size of the accumulated stock. 14.3.1 Stock Pollutants The efficient

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