西方文化入门-2010(Handout-1).doc 7页

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    PAGE PAGE 7 The Aegean Civilization and Athens (HANDOUT 1) September, 2010 One of the great paradoxes of history is that the next hesitant advance of European civilization—the development of the first city-states—took place not on the fertile open central European plains, but in a remote island to the south of the Aegean Sea which was completely lacking in metal resources. While the glittering mounted warrior-princes of central Europe dissipated their creative energy in warfare, a highly cultured yet peaceful society, built on trade and an agricultural surplus, emerged on Crete. The history of Greece can be traced back to Stone Age hunters. Later came early farmers and the civilizations of the Minoan and Mycenaean kings. This was followed by a period of wars and invasions, known as the Dark Ages. In about 1100 B.C., a people called the Dorians invaded from the north and spread down the west coast. In the period from 500-336 B.C. Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. Early Bronze Age (2900—2000 B.C.) The period in antiquity that corresponds to the introduction of metallurgy, notably bronze-working, for making tools, weapons, and ceremonial objects. Minoan Age (2000—1400 B.C.) Bronze Age civilization, centering on the island of Crete. It was named after the legendary king Minos. It is divided into three periods: the early Minoan period (3000—2200 B.C.), the Middle Minoan period (2200—1500 B.C.) and the Late Minoan period (1500 Mycenaean Age (1600—1100 B.C.) Period of high cultural achievement, forming the backdrop and basis for subsequent myths of the heroes. It was named for the kingdom of The Dark Ages (1100—750 B.C.) The period between the fall of the Mycenaean civilizations and the readoption of writing in the eighth or seventh century B.C. After the Trojan Wars the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil war, the country was weak and a tribe called the Dorians took over. Some specula

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