化学工程与工艺专业英语课文翻译完整版.pdf 47页

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化学工程与工艺专业英语课文翻译完整版.pdf

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    Unit 1 Chemical Industry 化学工业 Before reading the text below, try to answer following question: 1. When did the modern chemical industry start? 2. Can you give a definition for the chemical industry? 3. What are the contribution which the chemical industry has made to meet and satisfy our needs? 4. Is the chemical industry capital- or labor-intensive? Why? 1.Origins of the Chemical Industry Although the use of chemicals dates back to the ancient civilizations, the evolution of what we know as the modern chemical industry started much more recently. It may be considered to have begun during the Industrial Revolution, about 1800, and developed to provide chemicals roe use by other industries. Examples are alkali for soapmaking, bleaching powder for cotton, and silica and sodium carbonate for glassmaking. It will be noted that these are all inorganic chemicals. The organic chemicals industry started in the 1860s with the exploitation of William Henry Perkin’s discovery if the first synthetic dyestuff mauve. At the start of the twentieth century the emphasis on research on the applied aspects of chemistry in Germany had paid off handsomely, and by 1914 had resulted in the German chemical industry having 75% of the world market in chemicals. This was based on the discovery of new dyestuffs plus the development of both the contact process for sulphuric acid and the Haber process for ammonia. The later required a major technological breakthrough that of being able to carry out chemical reactions under conditions of very high pressure for the first time. The experience gained with this was to stand Germany in good stead, particularly with the rapidly increased demand for nitrogen-based compounds (ammonium salts for fertilizers and nitric acid for explosives manufacture)

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