美国学校体育性别歧视的司法规制探析.docx

美国学校体育性别歧视的司法规制探析.docx

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美国学校体育性别歧视的司法规制探析 An analysis of judicial regulations on sexual discrimination in school physical education in the United states ZHOU Qing-sha (School of Law,Xiangtan University,Xiangtan *****,China) Abstract: In the United States, the main legal ground for banning sexual discrimination in physical education devel-oped by schools sponsored by the government is Chapter 9 in the Education Act Amendment established in 1972. When a court is processing a related case, it determines whether the involved sports event is a body contesting sport or a non body contesting sport. In a public school, for a body contesting sport, if there is only a men’s sports team or a women’s sports team in the school, it is not allowed for someone of the opposite sex to join the team; for a non body contesting sport, if there is only a men’s sports team in the school, it is allowed for a woman to join the team, but if there is only a women’s sports team, it is usually not allowed for a man to joint the team; if there are a men’s sports team and a women’s sports team, male and female athletes should enjoy equal opportunities and treatments. The pursuit of the United States for sexual equity in the school physical education area enables men and women to enjoy equal op-portunities and to ultimately realize substantial equity by getting rid of bias formed by physiological differences espe-cially social genders on the basis of admitting that there are physiological differences between men and women. Key words: sport law;sexual discrimination;judicial regulation;school physical education;United states 至今,世界上仍有少数国家禁止女性参加体育竞赛,这些国家参加国际体育比赛都是清一色的男性运动员,也有一些国家也是在近年来才允许女性参加体育比赛,但她们的地位只是充当配角,根本不可能享有与男性同样的机会。即使在大力推进性别平等的国家,体育领域的性别平等状况也不尽如人意,在美国,由于各种原因,政府资助的学校体育领域,男女体育项目的发展不平衡长期存在,这就构成了性别歧视。本文以美国学校体育中性别歧视为例,通过对相关司法判例的总结和归纳,探讨其对性别歧视的规制和如何保护学生的体育权利。 1 美国法院对学校体育领域性别歧视的裁判标准 一般情况下,美国针对学校体育领域性别歧视所提起的诉讼主要有3项法律依据:一是美国宪法的平等保护条款;二是美国1972年的《教育法修正案》第9章;三是部分州通过的《平等权利修正案》(equal right am

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