304R不锈钢应力腐蚀的研究.doc

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PAGE I PAGE I 304R不锈钢应力腐蚀的研究 摘要 304不锈钢由于在较大的温度区间内有良好的塑韧性和耐腐蚀性能而在石油、海洋、核工业等方面被普遍使用。然而,304不锈钢在极端环境下(在氯离子存在的情况下)会发生严重的晶间腐蚀和晶间应力腐蚀,从而导致装置设备的跑气、漏液等,造成巨大的财产损失。 大量的研究表明,304不锈钢在应力作用下腐蚀的发生、发展与其周围氯离子浓度、温度、所受应力大小有关,当它们综合作用达到应力腐蚀的临界条件时,发生应力腐蚀开裂。应力作用下,电化学腐蚀和力学起到协同作用,电化学腐蚀产生的点蚀和晶间腐蚀使应力更容易产生应力集中,应力作用下产生更多的位错缺陷又促进了电化学腐蚀的进行。因此,研究应力作用下耐蚀性的变化,对304不锈钢的开发具有重要的意义[1]。 基于以上分析,我们设计了一套简易的应力腐蚀电化学测试装置,通过对试样施加不同大小的弯曲应力来对其进行应力腐蚀性能测试,从而研究304不锈钢钝化膜形成和基体在腐蚀过程中发生的变化规律。此类装置目前尚无成品销售,是理论与实际的一次完美结合。通过使用自行设计的应力腐蚀装置对不同种类不锈钢进行实验分析,可以更进一步解释应力腐蚀相关电化学机理,弥补相关应力腐蚀实验现象。 关键词:304不锈钢,应力腐蚀,微观结构 PAGE PAGE VII THE RESEARCH ON STRESS CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF 304 STAINLESS STEEL ABSTRACT 304 Stainless steel is widely used due to a combination of good mechanical properties and excellent corrosion resistance over a large temperature range. However, intergranular corrosion (IGC) and inter-granular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) are serious problems for 304 stainless steel exposed to aggressive environments, which could result in unexpected failures and lead to huge losses.In addition, with the gradually enrichment of chloride ion in the cooling water, etc,more to speed up the stress corrosion. A large number of science and technology literature shows that the occurrence and development of stress corrosion of 304 stainless steel \t "E:/360downloads/Dict/6.3.68.1111/resultui/" relative \t "E:/360downloads/Dict/6.3.68.1111/resultui/" to thechloride ion concentration, temperature, the size of the stress around the stainless steel.When they combined the critical conditions of stress corrosion of 304 stainless steel,Stress corrosion cracking happens.One of the major reasons for both these forms of corrosion is the grain boundary (GB) sensitization. The exposure in the temperature range of 500–800℃ leads to the grain boundaryprecipitation of chromium rich carbides and to the formation of chro-mium depletion regions. The morphology and distribution of carbides at GBs are considered as important factors a

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