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东北大学实时系统课件.ppt 63页

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Real-Time Computing Technology 领先的国家 美国:波音 ,福特,通用,戴姆勒-克莱斯勒 德国:大众,宝马,奔驰,保时捷 瑞典:沃尔沃,萨博,ABB,SCANIA 法国:空中客车,PSA(标致--雪铁龙) 意大利:菲亚特(法拉利,玛莎拉蒂,阿尔法·罗密欧) … … * * Further: Multirate Systems For example The sampling rates of A, B, and C are 180Hz, 90Hz, 30Hz resp. The sampling periods are “harmonic” Do the following in each 1 / 180 second cycle: Do A Do B once every 2 cycles …… Do C once every 6 cycles …… Output commands Wait until the beginning of the next cycle Furthermore: A Car Controller Activities of a car control system. Let C= worst case execution time T= (sampling) period D= deadline Control requirements Construct a controller meeting all the deadlines! Objects C T D Speed measurement 4 20 5 ABS control 10 40 40 Fuel injection 40 80 80 Others, e.g. audio, air conditonning Soft deadlines The Overall System Timing Analysis Software system is complex Timing Analysis Usually performed bottom-up Program Level Analysis to bound the worst-case execution time (WCET) of each individual task assuming fully dedicated hardware System Level Analysis the WCET information of individual tasks is gathered, to investigate the contention of processing capacity among different tasks in a multitasking environment Program Level * Execution Time of a Program Execution times of programs are intrinsically variable! Void signal_processing (){ read_signal(&curr_signal); if (curr_signal < threshold){ signal_transformation(); // some +-*/ ops. } else{ error_handling_routine(); // complex error handling operations } } The Distribution of Execution Times Distribution BCET Possible Execution Time WCET Predicted Upper Bound Observed BCET Observed WCET Observed Execution Time Execution Time Worst-Case Guarantee The Quality of Static Analysis Safety The estimated upper bound should always enclose the WCET Tightness (Precision) The estimated upper bound should be as close as possible to the actual WCET Main objective: to minimize system over-provisioning Complexity There

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