文件第7章生态系统中元素路径自然济.pdfVIP

文件第7章生态系统中元素路径自然济.pdf

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Background Cycling of elements and flux of energy in ecosystems are fundamentally different: chemical elements are reused repeatedly energy flows through the system only once Many aspects of elemental cycling make sense only when we understand that chemical transformations and energy transformations go hand in hand. (c) 2001 by W. H. man and Assimilatory and Dissimilatory Processes Assimilatory processes: orporate inorganic forms of elements into organic forms, requiring energy example: photosynthesis (reduction of carbon) Dissimilatory processes: transform organic forms of elements into inorganic forms, releasing energy example: respiration (oxidation of carbon) (c) 2001 by W. H. man and Energy transformations and element cycling are linked. Organisms y important roles ycling of elements when they carry out chemical transformations : most biological energy transformations are associated with biochemical oxidation and reduction of C, O, N, and S these assimilatory and dissimilatory processes are often linked, one providing energy for the other (c) 2001 by W. H. man and Coupled reactions are the basis of energy flow in ecosystems. A typical coupling of assimilatory/ dissimilatory reactions might involve: oxidation (dissimilation) of carbon in carbohydrate (energy-yielding), linked to reduction (assimilation) of nitrate-N to amino-N (energy-requiring) Some processes may involve many steps. Energy is lost at each step (inefficiency). (c) 2001 by W. H. man and Ecosystems may be modeled as linked compartments. An ecosystem may be viewed as a set of

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