测控技术与仪器专业英语 第六章 化工出版社.ppt 18页

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测控技术与仪器专业英语 第六章 化工出版社.ppt

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    An Overview for Control System Control systems are everywhere around us and within us. *Many complex control systems are included among the functions of the human body. An elaborate control systems centered in the hypothalamus of the brain maintains body temperature at 37 degrees Celsius (℃) despite changes in physical activity and external ambience. In one control system—the eye—the diameter of the pupil automatically adjusts to control the amount of light that reaches the retina. Another control system maintains the level of sodium ion concentration in the fluid that surrounds the individual cells. Threading a needle and driving an automobile are two ways in which the human body functions as a complex controller. The eyes are sensor that detects the position of the needle and thread, or of the automobile and the center of the road. A complex controller, the brain, compares the two positions and determines which actions must be performed to accomplish the desired result. The body implements the control action by moving the thread or turning the steering wheel; an experienced driver will anticipate all type of disturbances to the system, such as a rough section of pavement or a slow-moving vehicle ahead. It would be very difficult to reproduce in an automatic controller the many judgments that an average person makes daily and unconsciously. Control systems regulate temperature in home, school, and buildings of all types. They also affect the production of goods and services by ensuring the purity and uniformity of the food we eat and by maintaining the quality of products from paper mills, steel mills, chemical plants, refineries, other types of manufacturing plants. Control systems help protect our environment by minimizing waste material that must be discarded, thus reducing manufacturing costs and minimizing the waste disposal problem. Sewage and waste treatment also requires the

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