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AP ChemistryAP化学.PPT 82页

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Demo: Conductivity Puzzle Demo: When Does 1 + 1 ≠ 2 Balancing Redox Rxns by the ON Method Assign oxidation numbers to all elements in the reaction. From the changes in oxidation numbers, identify the oxidized and reduced species. Compute the number of electrons lost in the oxidation and gained in the reduction from the oxidation number changes (draw tie-lines between these atoms to show the changes). Multiply one or both of these numbers by appropriate factors to make the electrons lost equal to the electrons gained, and use the factors as balancing coefficients. Complete the balancing by inspection, adding states of matter. Elements in Redox Rxns Combination reactions X + Y ? Z Decomposition Reactions Z ? X + Y Displacement Reactions X + YZ ? XZ + Y Aluminum reacts with oxygen gas Combination of nonmetals Nitrogen Gas + Hydrogen Gas Nitrogen gas + oxygen gas Phosphorus trichloride + chlorine gas Decomposition By heat Heating potassium perchlorate Electrolytic Decomposition Water Displacement Single Displacement (Activity Series) Displacement (Activity Series) 1. Activity Series of Metals A metal displaces H2 from water or acid Aluminum + water --> aluminum hydroxide + hydrogen gas Nickel + hydrochloric acid --> nickel chloride + hydrogen gas A metal displaces another metal ion Copper (II) sulfate + zinc --> 2. Activity Series of Halogens reactivity decreases as move down group Sodium bromide + chlorine Combustion Equilibrium “dynamic equilibrium” * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Sample Problem 4.9 Finding an Unknown Concentration by a Redox Titration PROBLEM: Calcium ion (Ca2+) is required for blood to clot and for many other cell processes. An abnormal Ca2+ concentration is indicative of disease. To measure the Ca2+ concentration, 1.00mL of human blood was treated with Na2C2O4 solution. The resulting CaC2O4 precipitate was filtered and dissolved in dilute H2SO4. This solution required 2.05mL of 4.88x10-4M

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