全球价值链的治理外文原文.pdf

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Review of International Political Economy 12:1 February 2005: 78–104 The governance of global value chains Gary Gereffi Duke University John Humphrey Institute of Development Studies and Timothy Sturgeon Massachusetts Institute of Technology ABSTRACT This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance pat- terns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature – trans- action costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning – to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are: (1) the complexity of transactions, (2) the ability to codify transactions, and (3) the capabilities in the supply-base. The theory generates five types of global value chain governance – hierarchy, captive, relational, modular, and market – which range from high to low levels of explicit coordination and power asymmetry. The article highlights the dynamic and overlapping nature of global value chain governance through four brief industry case studies: bicycles, apparel, horticulture and electronics. KEYWORDS Global value chains; governance; networks; transaction costs; value chain modularity. The world economy has changed in significant ways during the past sev- eral decades, especially in the areas of international trade and industrial organization. Two of the most important new features of the contemporary economy are the globalization of production and trade,1 which have fueled Review of International Political Economy

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